DESIGN OF A CONCRETE ELEVATED WATER TANK (50,000 CAPACITY)

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DESIGN OF A CONCRETE ELEVATED WATER TANK (50,000 CAPACITY)

 

BY

HE/000

HE/000Zero

A PROJECT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE AWARD OF HIGHER NATIONAL DIPLOMA (HND) IN THE DEPARTMENT OF CIVIL ENGINEERING,
SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING

SEPTEMBER, 2020.
DECLARATION
We hereby declare that this venture is our unique work and has not been beforehand submitted both partially or full to any establishment for the award of certificates or diploma.

…………………………….. ……………………
Date

…………………………….. …………………
Date

 

 

 

CERTIFICATION
The Board of Examiner Declared as follows: that that is the partial achievement of the Necessities for the award of Increased Nationwide Diploma in Civil Engineering Expertise.

…………………………………….. ………………………………….
Wokoma T.T.T Signature/Date
(Undertaking Supervisor)

……………………………………… ………………………………….
Signature/ Date
(Undertaking Coordinator)

……………………………………… ………………………………….
Engr. Ugo Kingsley Signature/Date
(Head of Division)

……………………………………… ………………………………
Engr. A. B. Ledogo . Signature/ Date
(Chairman Board of Examiners)

 

DEDICATION
This venture is devoted to God Almighty for His safety, steering and provision all through the reason for our research.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We sincerely thank the Almighty God for His grace and mercies in direction of us. We additionally admire the contributions of our supervisor Wokoma T.T.T who was spectacular in ensuring this venture is a hit. We additionally admire the venture coordinator Engr. L. B. Ledogo and never forgetting the Head of Division, Engr Ugo Kingsley and all of the lecturers and college students of Civil Engineering Division.

ABSTRACT
Water tanks are used to retailer water and provide protected ingesting water. With the rise in inhabitants, water consumption and demand has elevated drastically. The design of an elevated concrete water tank with a capability of 50,000 was examined on this work. It was assumed that the consumptive water/cap/individual is 120liters, with 5 individuals per constructing and a complete of 1000 individuals within the space will use the ability. Restrict state design strategy was adopted with the consideration of the tank being a water tight construction. Once more based mostly on the restrict state design idea the tank capability was critically examined within the peak of its serviceability like cracks, deflections and many others. the end result of the structural design in chapter Four reveals that the tank is passable with respect to its design goal. All water retaining constructions ought to be correctly designed based mostly on requirements and specs and water storage tanks ought to be washed and cleaned at the very least after each 6 months in an effort to forestall germs, fungae and algae and many others.

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CONTENT TABLE OF CONTENT PAGE
Title Web page i
Certification ii
Dedication iii
Acknowledgement iv
Summary v
Desk of contents vi

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION
Background of Research
Assertion of Downside
Targets of Research
Justification of Research
Significance of Research
Scope of Research

CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
2.2 The fundamental want for water
2.Three Sources of water
2.Four Water storage tanks
2.5 Water amount estimation
2.6 Consumption of water
2.7 Hearth Combating Demand
2.eight Components Affecting Per Capita Demand
2.9 Demand in fluctuation charge
2.10 Inhabitants Design & Interval Forecast
2.11 Inhabitants Forecasting Strategies
2.12 Classification of Tanks
2.13 Bolstered Concrete Design Philosophy
2.14 Serviceability Restrict State
2.15 Final Restrict State
2.16 Supplies
2.16.1Concrete
2.16.2Reinforcement
2.16.3Aggregate
2.16.4Loads

CHAPTER THREE: MATERIALS AND METHODS
Three.1 Description of Research
Three.2 Experimental Procedures
Three.Three Design Issues

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Four.1 Outcomes
Four.2 Dialogue

CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 Conclusion
5.2 Suggestion
References
Appendices

 

 

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUTION
1.1 BACKGROUND OF THE STUDY
Water is taken into account because the supply of residing for each creation as it’s a essential ingredient for wholesome residing, protected ingesting water is among the primary parts for human to maintain a wholesome life, excessive demand for protected and clear water is rising day-to-day as one can’t stay with out water. Thus, it turns into essential to retailer water. (Charles & Manning 2007)
Water is a primary want for each human being. Many of the world inhabitants nonetheless doesn’t have centralized water provide with connections to particular person households. In accordance with World Well being Group (WHO), roughly 2.Four billion of the world’s inhabitants doesn’t have entry to an improved sanitation facility and about 1.1 billion individuals doesn’t have entry to protected ingesting water. The supply of protected and enough ingesting water to city inhabitants continues to be one of many main difficult process.

A water tank is used to retailer water to tide over the every day requirement, water tanks are used to offer storage of water to be used in lots of functions similar to ingesting water, irrigation agriculture, fireplace suppression, agricultural farming, each for vegetation and livestock, chemical manufacturing, meals preparation in addition to many different makes use of. (Shirima, 2010).
Some of the vital wants of any group improvement is protected and enough provide of potable water however sadly, there’s a scarcity of fresh water provide in rural areas of many growing nations. A big share of the agricultural areas in such nations nonetheless depend on man-made wells, pure springs and rivers and of current restricted pipe water schemes. Majority of such sources are usually not at economical distances from the dwellings. The effectiveness of the piped water provide will depend on the provision of water storage tanks (Shirima, 2010).
In small cities or in quickly rising city areas, it’s common place to make use of concrete water tanks of two to 50 mega litres or better ‘’header’’ or ‘’surge’’ tanks to retailer water pumped from a distant supply. The saved water is then distributed to a particular group at a usually fixed head. (Patentscope, 2011)
Bolstered concrete elevated water tanks are used to retailer and provide protected ingesting water. With the fast pace of urbanization, demand for ingesting water has elevated drastically. Additionally, on account of scarcity of electrical energy, it’s not attainable to provide water by pumps at peak hours. In such conditions, elevated water tanks develop into essential.
As demand for water tanks continues, it’s crucial that these water tanks are designed in keeping with design standards and specs. (Agarwal & Pall 2004)
1.2 STATEMENT OF PROBLEM
Water tanks are used to retailer water and provide protected ingesting water, with the rise in inhabitants, water consumption and demand has additionally elevated drastically. This now makes the demand for concrete water on the rise particularly in city areas. Since this demand will proceed so long as human existence continues, there may be want for correct, environment friendly and sturdy concrete tank that may stand the take a look at of time.
1.Three OBJECTIVES OF STUDY
To grasp the fundamentals of concrete elevated water tank.
To confirm pointers for the design of liquid retaining construction utilizing specs and codes.
To grasp the design philosophy of protected and financial use of concrete water tank.
1.Four JUSTIFICATION OF STUDY
By design, a concrete elevated water tank ought to do no hurt to the water. Water is prone to a lot of ambient unfavorable influences, together with micro organism, viruses, algae, adjustments in pH and accumulation of minerals, gasoline. The contamination can come from a wide range of origins together with piping, tank development supplies, animal and hen feces, mineral and gasoline intrusion. A accurately designed water tank works to handle and mitigate these unfavorable results. It’s crucial that every one standards and specs are adopted throughout designs.

1.5 SIGNIFICANT OF STUDY
This research is anxious with the design of a concrete elevated water tank utilizing finest sensible options, specs and strategies that should be adopted in an effort to produce a construction that’s environment friendly and sturdy to meet its meant goal.
1.6 SCOPE OF STUDY
The scope of this analysis is restricted to the design of concrete elevated water tank (50,000 CAPACITY).

CHAPTER 2
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
Water provide is the availability of water by public utilities, business organizations, group, people through s system of pumps and pipes. Water provide system includes infrastructure for the gathering, transmission, storage, and distribution of water for properties, business institutions, business, and irrigation, in addition to for public wants similar to firefighting and road flushing. Of all municipal companies, provision of moveable water is probably essentially the most important. Individuals depend upon water for ingesting, cooking, washing, carrying away wastes, and different home wants.
Water provide methods should additionally meet necessities for public, business, and industrial actions. In all instances, the water should fulfill each high quality and amount necessities.
2.2 THE BASIC NEED FOR WATER
In accordance with nationwide and worldwide pointers, the amount of water accessible to all individuals ought to be 50-100 liters per individual per day, or an absolute minimal of 20 liters per individual per day (UNDP, 2006) The water should be protected ingesting and different family makes use of. Ingesting should be free from pathogenic (disease-causing) micro-organisms (tiny residing organisms that you would be able to solely see with a microscope), and free from chemical and bodily contaminants that represent a hazard to an individual’s well being. It should even be free from coloration and odor. Water should be inside protected bodily attain, in or close to the home, college or well being facility. In accordance with the World Well being Group (WHO), the water supply must be inside 1000m of the house and assortment time mustn’t exceed 30 minutes (UNDESA 2014)
In addition to bee bodily accessible, water must also be moderately priced and reasonably priced for everybody. Shopping for water mustn’t scale back an individual’s capability to purchase different important items. Because of this, the price of water should be saved low and important quantities of water should generally be supplied free.

 

2.Three SOURCES OF WATER SUPPLY
The assorted sources of water might be labeled into two classes:
Floor sources, similar to
Ponds and lakes
Streams and rivers
Storage reservoirs and
Oceans
Sub-surface sources, or underground sources similar to
Springs
Infiltration wells and
Wells and tube-wells.

2.Four WATER STORAGE TANKS
Water storage tank is a reservoir to retailer water for industrial, dwelling use and firefighting, tanks made out of metal have the potential to corrode and leak if not correctly protected internally from water containing chlorine and externally from soil.
Water storage tanks can be found in lots of sizes and styles, they are often vertical, horizontal, underground and moveable, and might be made out of plastic metal, fiberglass, stone or concrete. Water tank leakage and corrosion in addition to bacterial development are menace to the tank.
Over time, tank methods weaken or develop into broken if corrosion shouldn’t be managed, uncontrolled corrosion leads to holes or attainable structural failure of the tank, resulting in the discharge of saved liquid into the surroundings. (Agarwal & Pall 2004)
In metal water tanks, corrosion happens on account of present passing from one level to a different on the tanks internal floor. The tank partitions act as an anode the place the water acts as cathode, the anode loses electrons, thereby corroding the tank, if left untreated, this will trigger water discoloration and leaks from the tank wall. (Agarwal & Pall 2004)
The precise column portion is designed to face up to water stress stay load and self-weight of various elements. The column helps design to withstand wind forces and earth forces along with the power transferred from the tank to stop or decrease its impervious concrete of minimal grade M25-35 should be used because the design for water retaining constructions. (syal and geoel,1990)
It’s virtually attainable to face any object on its middle of gravity however the major query is whether or not it is ready to face up to some utility of forces or loading. In the best way that nature supplies enough stability for a heavy tall tree by way of its root even when the tree is beneath severe wind forces give rise to the kind of basis design to be thought-about for elevated tank design to offer stability beneath.
Its self-load
Exterior loading situation
Numerous soil or floor situation
These situation on this venture could possibly be clearly seen from the overview of structural failures of various constructions inside and out of doors Nigeria: within the early 1960‘s elevated water tank had been constructed in 4 secondary colleges within the japanese Nigeria by some Engineering firms-soon in any case however one of many tank titled and failed-some professional research revealed that the failures had been on account of insufficient design. (Agarwal & Pall 2004)
2.5 WATER QUANTITY ESTIMATION
The amount of water required for municipal makes use of for which the water provide scheme must be designed requires the next knowledge:
Water consumption charge (per capita demand liters per day per head)
Inhabitants to be served
Amount =Per demand × inhabitants
2.6 CONSUMPTION RATE OF WATER
It is extremely troublesome to exactly entry the amount of water demanded by the general public, since there are a lot of variable components affecting water consumption.
The assorted sorts of water demand which a metropolis might have, could also be damaged into the next class:

Water Consumption for Numerous Functions
Fig 2.1
S/No
Varieties of Consumption
Regular Vary (lit/capita/day)
Common
%

1.
Home consumption
65-300
160
35

2.
Industrial and business consumption
45-450
135
35

Three.
Public together with fireplace demand makes use of
20-90
45
10

Four.
Losses and waste
45-150
62
25

Supply: Worldwide water administration institute
2.7 FIRE FIGHTING DEMAND
The per capita fireplace demand could be very much less on a median foundation however the charge at which the water is required could be very giant. The speed of fireplace demand is typically handled as a perform of inhabitants and is labored out from the next empirical formulae:

 

Fig 2.2
S/no
Authority
Formulae (P in 1000’s)
Q for 1 Lakh inhabitants

1.
American Insurance coverage Affiliation
Q(L/mm) = 46370 ŌP (1-Zero.01 ŌP)
41760

2.
Kuching’s formulation
Q(L/mm) = 3182 ŌP
31800

Three.
Freeman’s formulation
Q(L/mm) = 1136.5 (P/5 + 10)
35050

Four.
Ministry of city improvement handbook formulation
Q(kilo liters/d) = 100 ŌP for P > 50000
31623

Supply: United Nation Surroundings Program (UNEP)
2.eight FACTORS AFFECTING PER CAPITA DEMAND
Measurement of town: Per capita demand for large cities is mostly giant as in comparison with that for smaller cities as huge cities have served homes
Presence of industries
Weather conditions
Habits of financial standing
High quality of water
Strain within the distribution system
Price of water
Effectivity of water work’s administration: Leaks in water mains and companies and unauthorized use of water might be saved to a minimal by surveys.
Coverage of metering and charging methodology: Water tax is charged in two other ways: On the premise meter studying and on the premise of sure mounted month-to-month charge.

2.9 DEMAND IN FLUCTUATION RATE
Common Day by day Capita Demand = Amount Required in 12 months (365 × Inhabitants). If this common demand is provided in any respect the occasions, it won’t be ample to fulfill the fluctuations.
Seasonal Variation: The demand peaks throughout summer time, fireplace escape are usually extra in summer time, rising demand, so there may be seasonal variation.
Day by day Variation: Will depend on the exercise, individuals Draw out extra water on Sundays and competition days, thus rising demand on as of late.
Hourly Variation: Are essential as they’ve a variety throughout lively family workings hours i.e. from six to 10 within the morning and 4 to eight within the night, the majority of the every day requirement is taken. Throughout different hours, the requirement is negligible. Furthermore, if a fireplace breaks out, an enormous amount of water is required to be provided throughout quick length, necessitating the necessity for a most charge of hourly provide.
So, an enough amount of water should be accessible to fulfill the height demand, to fulfill all of the fluctuations, the provision pipes, companies reservoirs and distribution pipes should be correctly proportioned. The water is provided by pumping immediately and the pumps and distribution system should be designed to fulfill the height demand. The impact of month-to-month variation influences the design of storage reservoirs and the hourly variations influences the design of pumps and repair reservoirs. Because the inhabitants decreases, the fluctuation charge will increase.
Most Day by day Demand = 1.eight × common every day demand
Most hourly demand of most day i.e. peak demand
= 1.5× common hourly demand
= 1.5× common every day demand/24
= 1.5× (1.eight × common every day demand)/24
= 2.7× common every day demand/24
= 2.7× annual common hourly demand

2.10 POPULATION DESIGN AND PERIOD FORECASTING
This amount ought to be labored out with due provision for the estimated requirement of the longer term. The longer term interval for which a provision is made within the water provide scheme is named the design interval.
Design interval is estimated based mostly on the next:
Helpful lifetime of the element, contemplating obsolescence, put on, tears and many others.
Expandability side
Anticipated charge of development of inhabitants, together with industrial, business developments and migration -immigration
Accessible sources
Efficiency of the system throughout preliminary interval
2.11 POPULATION FORECASTING METHODS
The assorted strategies adopted for estimating future populations are given under, the actual methodology to be adopted for a selected case or for a selected metropolis relies upon largely on the components mentioned within the strategies, and the choice is left to the discretion and intelligence of the designer.
Incremental enhance methodology
Lowering charge of Development methodology
Easy graphical methodology
Ratio methodology
Logistic curve methodology
Arithmetic enhance methodology
Geometric enhance methodology

2.12 CLASSIFICATION OF TANKS
Classification based mostly on three heads
Tanks resting on floor
Elevated tanks supported on staging
Underground tanks
2. Classification based mostly on shapes
Round tanks
Rectangular tanks
Spherical tanks
Intze tanks
Round tanks with conical backside
2.13 CLEANING A WATER HOLDING TANK
Delivered water ought to be moveable (protected for human consumption) and obtained from an permitted supply. It’s essential to scrub and disinfect your water holding tanks at the very least annually or extra usually, if required that is to take away algae (plant development which produces dangerous tastes and odors) silt and micro organism which can be dangerous

METHODS OF CLEANING
Empty the tank
Scrub or stress wash the inside partitions to take away filth and dirt
Rinse out the tank
Combine an answer of family bleach and water (1 desk spoon or 15ml of bleach for each gallon of water)
Scrub or stress wash the inside partitions of the tank with this resolution and depart it sit for two hours.
After 2 hours, totally rinse the tank with clear water
Refill with moveable water
2.14 REINFORCED CONCRETE DESIGN PHILOSOPHY
Trendy bolstered concrete design strategies additionally observe the restrict state design philosophy of BS8110. It’s important to make, that in any sort of design, serviceability and supreme restrict state are glad.
The introduction of the restrict state philosophy supplies a phrase logical foundation in figuring out components of security. The restrict sate methodology allows the attainable modes of failure of a construction to be recognized and investigated so that exact untimely type of failure perhaps prevented.
2.15 SERVICEABILITY LIMIT STATE
The serviceability restrict state is that of cracking and this managed by limiting the flexural tensile stresses beneath service load situation, BS8110 acknowledges three courses 1, 2,Three.
Within the case of serviceability restrict of deflection, BS8110 give some restricted steering on acceptable ranges of deflection. These deflections in the usual are based mostly on expertise and test compliance, it important to hold out a easy elastic evaluation.
2.15.1 ULTIMATE LIMIT STATE
There are two principal final restrict states that are flexural and shear. In each instances, the design masses are multiply by the suitable partial components of security for a given load in clauses 2.Four,Three BS8110. Within the partial components of security are taken as 1.Four&1.6 for lifeless and imposed masses and wind load, a partial issue of security of 1.2 is used. That is adopted within the design of water retaining constructions.
2.16 MATERIALS
2.16.1 CONCRETE
When designing water retaining constructions, concrete of grade 25-35 are used. It’s not fascinating to make use of fast hardening cement due to it better evolution of warmth which tends to extend shrinkage cracking.
2.16.2 REINFORCEMENT
The tensile stress within the reinforcement in liquid constructions are comparatively low It’s ordinary to specify excessive energy metal with ribbed or deformed floor. Reinforcement in concrete is observed from corrosion by the alkalinity in cement.
2.16.Three AGGREGATE
The utmost dimension of combination should be chosen in relation to the thickness of the structural member.

2.16.Four LOADS
Liquid retaining constructions are subjected to hydrostatic fluid stress soil stress temperature gradients lifeless weight masses and dynamic loading arising from earth quake impact.
CHAPTER Three
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Three.1 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY
This chapter primarily includes the strategy with which the design was carried out. A construction designed to retain water should fulfill the requirement of energy, sturdiness, deflection and freedom from extreme cracking along with necessities of being leak proof.
Three.2 DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Concrete members of the tank should be designed towards structural failure.
All evaluation shall be finished based mostly on specs/codes.
Reinforcements shall be supplied for sturdiness.
Concrete combine weaker than M20 shouldn’t be used.
The minimal amount of cement within the concrete combine shall not be lower than 30KN/m2
Enough compaction, particularly by vibration is critical.
Restrict state design was adopted as beneficial by BS8110 of 2007
The retaining construction is predicated on the advice of BS8110 of 2007
Fy=410N/mm2
10. fcu=30N/mm2
Three.Three CRITERIA FOR TANK CAPACITY
A tank is designed based mostly on its meant goal. There are components that should be thought-about when designing a tank contemplating its form and dimension on the premise of technical consideration and financial benefit that are as follows.
POPULATION: The inhabitants for which the construction is serving is getting from the inhabitants forecast. On this case, a inhabitants of 1000 individuals and others are estimated to be accommodated in a small group at a given time.
ECONOMIC REASON: The monetary states and the technological improvement of the realm additionally have an effect on the dimensions and form of the tank.
From the world Well being group (W.H.O), it’s recommended that, 80 liters to 400 liters of water is required per capita demand per individual day with a typical quantity of about 150 liters per particular person per day recommended.
For the aim of this venture, 120L/ht/day and inhabitants of 1000 will probably be used to find out the amount of the tank.
Subsequently, the amount of the tank
1000 x 120 = 120,000 Liters = 120m3
For 2 days’ storage,
Tank quantity = 2 x 120 = 240m3

 

CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
Four.1 RESULTS
DESIGN PARAMETERS
Whole buildings = 200
Consumption charge =120lit/capital
Whole variety of individual per constructing = 5
Top of tank above floor degree = 9m
Depth of the tank =3m
Free board =Zero.5m
High slab load per m2 =13.02KN/m2
Finishes =1.90KN/m2
Fy =410N/mm2
Fcu =30N/mm2
General thickness(h) =400mm
b =1000m
 =12m
400Plan Part
400 7200 400
300
4000
400
Cross Part
General thickness = 400mm
d = h – c –ø/2
d = 400-26-6
d = 368mm

Water stress: assuming Four full and designing for 1m extensive
Pw =10 x 4KN/M2 = 40 KN/m per m run

 

Whole 1day requirement =120 x 1000= 120,000liters =120cub.m
Utilizing a tank of 3m deep, the realm of tank required will probably be 7.2 x 6.8m
Therefore offering 7.2 x 6.eight x 4m with Zero.5m as free board.

 

 

 

Fig Four.1.1
REFERENCE
CALCULATION

Space of tank = 7.2 x 6.eight x Four
Whole inhabitants = 5 x 200 =1000

Whole water required per/day= 120 x 1000
=120,000 = 120cub

Water stress on wall
M=40 x 1.6x (40 + Zero.40) x1/2
Three 2
= 432KN.m

Okay = M 432 x106
bd2fcu 1000 x 3682 x30

Okay = 432000000
4062720000
Okay = Zero.10

La = Zero.5+ Zero.25 – Okay = Zero.5+ Zero.25 – Zero.10
Zero.9 Zero.9

Zero.5+ Zero.25-Zero.1

 

Zero.5 + Zero.15

 

La = Zero.eight

 

Z = la x d = Zero.eight x 368

Z = 294mm

Deflection = M = 432 x106 = 432000000
bd2 1000 x 3682 135424000

D = Three.19

Ast = M = 432 x106 =432000000
Zero.95fyz Zero.95x410x294 114513

Ast = 377mm

Space supplied 377mm

Minimal metal reinforcement

= Zero.24%bh = Zero.24x1000x400 = 960mm2
100

Space of transverse reinforcement (excessive yield)

Zero.13%bh = Zero.13x1000x400 = 52000
100 100
= 520

Checking for thermal cracking
As = 377
bd 1000×368
= Zero.Zero01

 

and
x = Zero.30d
=Zero.03×368
= 110mm

Second at SLS = 432
1.6
= 270KN.m
Fs = M
As (d-x/Three)

= 270×106
377(368-110/Three)

= 270000000
124937.eight

Fs = 2161.1N/mm2

Fs > 85N/mm2, licensed okay.

Wall weight stress (P)

Four.Zero + Zero.Four = Four.Four
= Four.Four x Zero. Four x 24 x 1.Four

= 59.1KN/m

 

High slab load per m2= 13.02KN/m2

Finishes say = 1.90KNm2

Whole = 14.92KN/m2

Spanning = Ly/Lx
= 7.2
6.eight

= 1.06

Allowances for wall finishes

Water load = Four.Zero x 9.eight×1.6 =62.72KN/m2

Backside slab load = Zero.Four x 24 x1.Four = 13.44KN/m2

Ending = 1.06 x1.Four =1.48KN/m2

Whole U.D.L = 77.64KN/m2

Say = 77KN/m2

Second Assist

M = 432 + 100 x Zero.85 + 70 x Zero.852 x Zero.5

= 544. 8KN.m

Okay = M
bd2fcu

= 432×106 = 432000000
1000x3682x30 4062720000

Okay = Zero.10

Ast = M = 432 x106 = 432000000
Zero.95fyz Zero.95 x 410 x 294 114513

Ast = 377mm

Present R12@300 c/c (377mm2)

 

OUTPUT

1000
120cub

 

=432KN.m

=Zero.10KN

 

 

 

=Zero.eight

=294mm

=Three.19mm

 

=377mm

 

=960mm2

 

=520mm2

 

Zero.Zero01KN/m2

 

 

=110mm

 

=270KN.m

 

 

 

=2161.1N/mm2

 

 

= 59.1KN/m

 

=14.92kN/m

=1.06

 

 

 

 

77KN/m2

 

544.8KN.m

 

Zero.10

 

377mm

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Four.2 DISCUSSION
The water tank was designed for 200 buildings in B.dere Gokana native Authorities space, with a consumption charge of 120 liters per capita and 5 individuals per constructing; with a tank located at an elevation of 9m above the bottom. With general tank peak =Four.2m, fy =410mm2, fcu=30N/mm2, Q=12mm2, tank depth of 3m with the realm of tank = 7.2 x 6.eight m and Zero.5m as free board.
From the design, the end result reveals the next: depth=368mm, water stress =40KN/m per m. run, second (M) = 432KN.m, Okay= Zero.10, La = Zero.eight, Z= 294mm, Deflection = Three.19mm, Ast =377mm (Space supplied = 377mm), Minimal metal reinforcement = 960mm2, Space of transverse reinforcement = 520mm2, second at SLS = 270 KN.m, Fs = 2161.1N/mm2, wall weight stress = 59.1KN/m, complete prime slab load = 14.92KN, water load = 62.72KN/m2, Second assist = 544. 8KN.m
To satisfy water tightness necessities, the reinforce concrete can be made dense heavy concrete of 25N/mm2 (1:1:5:Three).
The depth of all basis should be as proven on drawing or should be at a depth of 1.2m from current floor degree after the elimination of vegetable topsoil. Additionally the engineer should erect the tank on a superb agency soil permitted.
Type works for any concrete members should be finished after the minimal required members of days which the engineer should certify enough.
Mass concrete blinding of combine (1:Three:6) should be laid previous to raft slab placement.

 

 

CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.1 CONCLUSION
Some of the vital wants of any group improvement is protected and enough provide of potable water however sadly, there’s a scarcity of fresh water provide in rural areas of many growing nations. A big share of the agricultural areas in such nations nonetheless depend on man-made wells, pure springs and rivers and of current restricted pipe water schemes.
By design, a concrete elevated water tank ought to do no hurt to the water. Water is prone to a lot of ambient unfavorable influences, together with micro organism, viruses, algae, adjustments in pH and accumulation of minerals, gasoline. The contamination can come from a wide range of origins together with piping, tank development supplies, animal and hen feces, mineral and gasoline intrusion. A accurately designed water tank works to handle and mitigate these unfavorable results. It’s crucial that every one standards and specs are adopted throughout designs.
5.2 RECOMMENDATION
There ought to be steady examination of bolstered concrete tanks beneath the impact of hydrodynamic stress ensuing from earthquake loading
Failures of tanks ought to be investigated by utilizing pc applications that considers cracking and nonlinearity
Further experimental research of wall specimens subjected to each axial tensions and mixed axial compression is required
All water retaining constructions ought to be correctly designed based mostly on requirements and specs
Water storage tanks ought to be washed and cleaned at the very least after each 6 months in an effort to forestall germs, fungae, algae and many others.

REFERENCES
Krishna Raju N. (2009), Structuring design and Bolstered concrete. third version Universities press, India.
Anchor, R.D (1992) “Design of liquid Retaining concrete construction
“London survey college press.

Dayaratnam P. (1986), Design of Bolstered concrete constructions.
third version, Oxford & IBH publishing co, Pvt restricted.

Joshi S.M Dr. Deshmurh S.R (2014). “Dynamic evaluation of elevated
rcc round liquid storage tank” worldwide journal of Analysis in Introduction Expertise. Vol 2, PP1-Three

Krishna Raju N “Superior Bolstered concrete design” 2nd
Version 21`M. Bhandari and Karan deep singh, “Comparative research of design of water tank just about IS: 3370” IJETAE publication, Vol-Four, issue-11, November 2014.

Manning, G.P (1967) “Reservoirs and tanks” London concrete
publications Restricted

M. Kalani and S.A Salpekar, “A comparative research of various
strategies of study for staging of elevated water tanks” Indian concrete Journal, July-August-1978, PP 210-216.
Slater, W.M (1985) “concrete water tanks in Ontano” Canadian
Journal of Civil Engineering Toronto

Victor O. Oyenuga simplified Bolstered concrete design” second
version ISBN: 978-36217-7-7

Syal I.C, Goel A.Okay 2010. Bolstered concrete constructions, 4th Bolstered Version., S. Chand & Co, New Delhi.
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